stri_sort: Sorting


This function sorts a character vector according to a locale-dependent lexicographic order.


stri_sort(str, decreasing = FALSE, na_last = NA, ..., opts_collator = NULL)



a character vector


a single logical value; should the sort order be nondecreasing (FALSE, default, i.e., weakly increasing) or nonincreasing (TRUE)?


a single logical value; controls the treatment of NAs in str. If TRUE, then missing values in str are put at the end; if FALSE, they are put at the beginning; if NA, then they are removed from the output


additional settings for opts_collator


a named list with ICU Collator’s options, see stri_opts_collator, NULL for default collation options


For more information on ICU’s Collator and how to tune it up in stringi, refer to stri_opts_collator.

As usual in stringi, non-character inputs are coerced to strings, see an example below for a somewhat non-intuitive behavior of lexicographic sorting on numeric inputs.

This function uses a stable sort algorithm (STL’s stable_sort), which performs up to N*log^2(N) element comparisons, where N is the length of str.


The result is a sorted version of str, i.e., a character vector.


Marek Gagolewski and other contributors


Collation - ICU User Guide,

See Also

The official online manual of stringi at

Gagolewski M., stringi: Fast and portable character string processing in R, Journal of Statistical Software 103(2), 2022, 1-59, doi: 10.18637/jss.v103.i02

Other locale_sensitive: %s<%(), about_locale, about_search_boundaries, about_search_coll, stri_compare(), stri_count_boundaries(), stri_duplicated(), stri_enc_detect2(), stri_extract_all_boundaries(), stri_locate_all_boundaries(), stri_opts_collator(), stri_order(), stri_rank(), stri_sort_key(), stri_split_boundaries(), stri_trans_tolower(), stri_unique(), stri_wrap()


stri_sort(c('hladny', 'chladny'), locale='pl_PL')
## [1] "chladny" "hladny"
stri_sort(c('hladny', 'chladny'), locale='sk_SK')
## [1] "hladny"  "chladny"
##  [1] "A" "B" "C" "D" "E" "F" "G" "H" "I" "J" "K" "L" "M" "N" "O" "P" "Q" "R" "S"
## [20] "T" "U" "V" "W" "X" "Y" "Z"
stri_sort(c(1, 100, 2, 101, 11, 10))
## [1] "1"   "10"  "100" "101" "11"  "2"
stri_sort(c(1, 100, 2, 101, 11, 10), numeric=TRUE)
## [1] "1"   "2"   "10"  "11"  "100" "101"