stri_trans_general: General Text Transforms, Including Transliteration

Description

ICU General transforms provide different ways for processing Unicode text. They are useful in handling a variety of different tasks, including:

  • Upper Case, Lower Case, Title Case, Full/Halfwidth conversions,

  • Normalization,

  • Hex and Character Name conversions,

  • Script to Script conversion/transliteration.

Usage

stri_trans_general(str, id, rules = FALSE, forward = TRUE)

Arguments

str

character vector

id

a single string with transform identifier, see stri_trans_list, or custom transliteration rules

rules

if TRUE, treat id as a string with semicolon-separated transliteration rules (see the ICU manual);

forward

transliteration direction (TRUE for forward, FALSE for reverse)

Details

ICU Transforms were mainly designed to transliterate characters from one script to another (for example, from Greek to Latin, or Japanese Katakana to Latin). However, these services are also capable of handling a much broader range of tasks. In particular, the Transforms include pre-built transformations for case conversions, for normalization conversions, for the removal of given characters, and also for a variety of language and script transliterations. Transforms can be chained together to perform a series of operations and each step of the process can use a UnicodeSet to restrict the characters that are affected.

To get the list of available transforms, call stri_trans_list.

Note that transliterators are often combined in sequence to achieve a desired transformation. This is analogous to the composition of mathematical functions. For example, given a script that converts lowercase ASCII characters from Latin script to Katakana script, it is convenient to first (1) separate input base characters and accents, and then (2) convert uppercase to lowercase. To achieve this, a compound transform can be specified as follows: NFKD; Lower; Latin-Katakana; (with the default rules=FALSE).

Custom rule-based transliteration is also supported, see the ICU manual and below for some examples.

Value

Returns a character vector.

Author(s)

Marek Gagolewski and other contributors

References

General Transforms – ICU User Guide, https://unicode-org.github.io/icu/userguide/transforms/general/

See Also

The official online manual of stringi at https://stringi.gagolewski.com/

Other transform: stri_trans_char(), stri_trans_list(), stri_trans_nfc(), stri_trans_tolower()

Examples

stri_trans_general('gro\u00df', 'latin-ascii')
## [1] "gross"
stri_trans_general('stringi', 'latin-greek')
## [1] "στριγγι"
stri_trans_general('stringi', 'latin-cyrillic')
## [1] "стринги"
stri_trans_general('stringi', 'upper') # see stri_trans_toupper
## [1] "STRINGI"
stri_trans_general('\u0104', 'nfd; lower') # compound id; see stri_trans_nfd
## [1] "ą"
stri_trans_general('Marek G\u0105golewski', 'pl-pl_FONIPA')
## [1] "marɛk ɡɔŋɡɔlɛfski"
stri_trans_general('\u2620', 'any-name') # character name
## [1] "\\N{SKULL AND CROSSBONES}"
stri_trans_general('\\N{latin small letter a}', 'name-any') # decode name
## [1] "a"
stri_trans_general('\u2620', 'hex/c') # to hex
## [1] "\\u2620"
x <- "\uC885\uB85C\uAD6C \uC0AC\uC9C1\uB3D9"
stringi::stri_trans_general(x, "Hangul-Latin")
## [1] "jonglogu sajigdong"
# Deviate from the ICU rules of romanisation of Korean,
# see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanization_of_Korean
id <- "
    :: NFD;
    \u11A8 > k;
    \u11AE > t;
    \u11B8 > p;
    \u1105 > r;
    :: Hangul-Latin;
"
stringi::stri_trans_general(x, id, rules=TRUE)
## [1] "jongrogu sajikdong"